Glaucoma - DVITA
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eye hospital in Durgapur

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Mail : healthcare@dvitaeyecare.com
Address :Dvita Eye Care CA/2, Ambedkar Sarani, Urvashi. Phase – 2, Bengal Ambuja, City Centre. Durgapur – 713216

eye hospital durgapur
DEPARTMENT

Glaucoma Treatments

A disease of the optic nerve, glaucoma affects approximately 60 million people worldwide. Approximately 7.5 million people are blinded by it, making it the second most common cause of blindness. There are 11 million people affected in India, of whom 1.5 million are blind. Doctors can help patients preserve their vision and enable them to live a full life, even though there is no cure for this condition.

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma affects the field of vision so gradually that many patients do not realize the problem until it is too late. Glaucoma has been called the ‘sneak thief of sight’ since it usually causes blindness without showing any symptoms.

What Causes Glaucoma?

Our eyes continuously produce a clear fluid called aqueous humor (Figs 1 & 2), which bathes and nourishes different regions of the eye (this is different from tears). Normally fluid drains out of the eye through a ‘drainage canal’ located at the junction of the cornea and iris, the ‘angle’ of the eye (Fig 2). Those suffering from glaucoma see their fluid drain out less freely than it should, which increases the pressure inside the eye. This is called intraocular pressure (IOP).

All sensations are transmitted from the retina to the brain by the optic nerve. IOP increases damage to the optic disc (the part of the optic nerve inside the eye is called the optic disc).

IOP can sometimes be “normal” even when glaucoma occurs. Hence, the vulnerability of the optic disc must be taken into account. Hence, glaucoma cannot be diagnosed by simply measuring intraocular pressure.

Types of Glaucoma

There are several types of glaucoma, all of which increase IOP and damage the optic nerve.

IOP rises in open angle glaucoma due to an increase in resistance to the outflow in the canal. There is a gradual onset of this type, and symptoms may not be evident until the damage has been done. The patient may lose their peripheral vision, leaving them with only central vision. Older people are more likely to lose peripheral vision.

Angle closure glaucoma is characterized by a relative blockage of fluid flow, resulting in elevated pressure. People with long-sightedness are more likely to suffer from this condition. The symptoms are dramatic in the rarer acute cases and include severe eye pain, headaches, nausea, reduced vision, and seeing rainbow coloured rings around lights. A stress, anxiety, or reading attack may also precipitate one, which may resolve on its own, but recur after some time.

Chronic angle closure glaucoma is the most common type of angle closure glaucoma. In this case, the ‘drainage canal’ is shut off by the iris, just like in open angle glaucoma.

The third type is developmental glaucoma, which is further divided into congenital glaucoma (occurs in newborns) and juvenile glaucoma (occurs in children and young adults).

Glaucoma and high IOP may also be secondary and caused by other factors, such as the use of steroid drops without a prescription. Such drops cannot be used without monitoring the intraocular pressure.

Types of Glaucoma

After the age of 40, a comprehensive eye examination is essential, not just a chart reading. Those at risk for glaucoma include:

  • Over 35 years of age (risk increases with age);
  • Those with glaucoma in their families;
  • Those who use steroid drops, tablets, or creams;
  • Those with diabetes, hypertension, and eye injuries;
  • Those who wear minus glasses for short-sightedness;
  • Any person complaining of pain, redness, or watering in the eyes; and
  • Lights that appear to have colored rings around them.

A comprehensive eye examination periodically can help detect other preventable, controllable, or treatable problems such as retinal detachment, diabetic eye disease, and cataracts.

Tips & Info

Therapies

The fact that there is no cure for glaucoma should not be overlooked.The loss of nerve fibers and the loss of visual function cannot be recovered. As treatment can only help preserve remaining vision, it is imperative to detect the disease at its earliest stages.

Managing glaucoma requires an individualized approach. In angle closure glaucoma, doctors use a laser to create an alternative drainage path for the fluid. This approach works for early cases; more advanced cases require medication and surgery as with open angle glaucoma. In the event of an attack of closed angle glaucoma, the IOP must be lowered as soon as possible to prevent damage to the optic nerve.

In open angle glaucoma, eye drops are initially used to reduce IOP; your doctor will decide which one is best for you. Surgery may be needed if the disease has advanced or if medical treatment has failed.

In addition to being expensive, medical treatment may last a lifetime. There is a risk of side effects with any treatment. In some cases, side effects may be more uncomfortable for the patient than living with the disease. Therefore, doctors consider the risk-benefit ratio of treatment options for glaucoma. Rather than the actual degree of vision loss, the main concern is how much functional capacity is affected. In your doctor’s opinion, the best treatment will be selected for your condition, please follow the advice carefully.

Some patients with glaucoma can manage it with medicine alone, while others may need laser treatment or surgery. This is usually done by cutting a piece of tissue from the angle of the eye and allowing the fluid to accumulate under the transparent skin surrounding the eyeball. While glaucoma surgery is less predictable than cataract surgery, it does carry more risks, such as the loss of an eye due to devastating bleeding or infection. This treatment is usually used if drugs do not control eye pressure, or for socioeconomic reasons.

Non-penetrating surgery can also reduce eye pressure and has fewer complications than a standard procedure. However, it doesn’t produce the same results. Therefore, glaucoma is not treated with it initially.

With poor potential for visual recovery or function, a different kind of laser can be used to reduce eye pressure. This is usually reserved for advanced cases.

First NABH Accredited Hospital in this region

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